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segunda-feira, 12 de março de 2012

A VERDADE SOBRE GIRO DE INVENTÁRIO / ESTOQUE


     Há tempos atrás freqüentei um curso interessante: tínhamos que competir com outros grupos de alunos para saber qual grupo melhor gerenciava um quiosque de côco na praia. Os grupos precisavam definir preços de venda com base no custo e na concorrência, estimar a demanda, planejar o estoque e fazer a promoção. Ao final das cinco rodadas do curso, nosso grupo empatou com outro em Faturamento, porém fomos “coroados” como vencedores por que terminamos as rodadas ainda com estoque.
     A história acima ilustra bem o que acontece em muitas empresas. A bem da verdade, nosso grupo deveria ter sido penalizado por finalizar as rodadas ainda com estoque, mas não é isso que pensa a grande maioria das pessoas.
     O mundo ideal para uma empresa seria não ter estoque. Imagine se você conseguisse atender um pedido dos seus clientes, produzindo e entregando imediatamente, sem ter nada em estoque. Sua empresa não teria que arcar com despesas de armazenamento do estoque, nem com salários dos funcionários do armazém, não correria o risco do prazo de validade do estoque se expirar e o custo do produto já teria sido abatido com a venda. Isto não seria o máximo?
     Este é um dos principais motivos pelo qual uma empresa deve sempre gerenciar seu nível de inventário. Se não dá para ficar sem estoque, que seja o mínimo possível, pelo menos.

Abs
Luiz Teixeira

segunda-feira, 4 de julho de 2011

THE MEANING OF P&L (ENGLISH VERSION)


P&L
Jan
Feb
Mar
Sales
3,000
3,036
3,040

Volume
      2,000
      2,200
      1,900

Price (Average)
       1.50
       1.38
       1.60
Factory Costs
1,650
1,763
1,619

Raw Material
 1,000.00
 1,100.00
    950.00

Labor
    500.00
    500.00
    500.00

Electricity
      50.00
      53.00
      49.00

Maintenance
    100.00
    110.00
    120.00
Gross Margin
1,350
1,273
1,421

  % of Sales
45%
42%
47%
Administrative Costs
850
860
860

Sales Force
    500.00
    510.00
    510.00

Advertising
    100.00
    100.00
    100.00

Staff
    250.00
    250.00
    250.00
Net Income
500
413
561

  % of Sales
17%
14%
18%


I remember, some years ago, when a worksheet like the one above was shown to us in the financial management class in MBA school. General astonishment! The truth is that the marketer is often not used to dealing with numbers, and when it's really needed, the shock is unavoidable.
The spreadsheet above is the famous P & L spreadsheet, and means "Profits & Losses". This is a report that states the financial health of a product, product line, department, or even a company as a whole (for this article, we will use the generic term "business unit").
With this report, it is possible to know what is selling, administrative expenses, costs, investments and everything else that may impact the business unit profitability.
In order to better analyze the expenses, we must understand the P&L structure, which is based on three interlinked pillars: Sales, Cost and Profit. When a business unit sell its products and take down your costs, have your profit. This is the beginning of the P & L.
The calculation below may seem simple (and it really is), but is crucial for managing the P & L. We can see, from its analysis, there are two ways to increase profit: increase sales or decrease costs.


Sales (eg: $3,000)
-
Cost (eg: $1,650)
=
Gross Margin (eg: $1,350)





By "Sales", we should consider all direct revenues (Local Sales, Export and Public Bids) from its activity, always indicated in monetary value. This value is found by multiplying the total volume (units) and the selling price. Changing our formula, we get:

Volume in units (2,000)
*
Price ($1.50)
=
$3.000
-
Cost ($1,650)
=
Gross Margin ($1,350)


The "cost" should be understood as all costs related to the manufacturing activity. It needs to consider only costs directly related to manufacturing, as raw material, Labor, electricity, maintenance, and others. Do not include costs not related to manufacturing (such as advertising, for example). Our formula, then, shows these costs:

Volume in units (2,000)
*
Price ($1.50)
=
$3,000
-
Raw Material ($1,000)
+
Labor ($500)
+
Electricity ($50)
+
Maintenance ($100)
+
Other factory costs
=
$1,650
=
Gross Margin ($1,350)


Thus, we have the "Gross Margin" (also called "gross profit") being generated from the subtraction of various elements. Use the Gross Margin to pay investments, Sales Force salaries, Staff salaries, and others. In order to facilitate the analisys, we can put the same equation like below:



P&L
Jan
Total Sales
3,000

Volume
      2,000

Price (Average)
       1.50
Factory Costs
1,650

Raw Materials
 1,000

Labor
    500

Electricity
      50

Maintenance
    100
Gross Margin
1.350

Like you can see, our spreadsheet is getting the same way as the P&L. From this point on, we need to include costs not related to manufacturing, like investments in advertising, sales, logistics, engineering, legal, purchasing, etc.. All these costs will be charged from Gross Margin. After all charged, the full P & L is completed as follows:

P&L
Jan
Feb
Mar
Sales
3,000
3,036
3,040

Volume
      2,000
      2,200
      1,900

Price (Average)
       1.50
       1.38
       1.60
Factory Costs
1,650
1,763
1,619

Raw Material
 1,000.00
 1,100.00
    950.00

Labor
    500.00
    500.00
    500.00

Electricity
      50.00
      53.00
      49.00

Maintenance
    100.00
    110.00
    120.00
Gross Margin
1,350
1,273
1,421

  % of Sales
45%
42%
47%
Administrative Costs
850
860
860

Sales Force
    500.00
    510.00
    510.00

Advertising
    100.00
    100.00
    100.00

Staff
    250.00
    250.00
    250.00
Net Income
500
413
561

  % of Sales
17%
14%
18%
 
There are many variables to be addressed when managing P & L, but a good understanding of its structure helps in identifying opportunities. We can list several examples of using the P & L for planning activities and strategies, however you, dear reader, may remember any situation that occurred with you when you were managing results, right? Share your experience with us!

Best Regards,
Luiz Teixeira